COVID-19 Vaccines For Kids + Teens with Diabetes
Editor’s Note: We have a simple goal: tap into the power of the global diabetes community to save lives. Visit coronavirusdiabetes.org to learn more about what you can do as a person with diabetes to keep yourself and others safe from COVID-19 until we’re all safe.
For ongoing coverage of the COVID-19 vaccines, visit Diabetes + COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Need to Know.
This article was last updated Wednesday, November 3, 2021. Updated January 17, 2023.
If your child with type 1 diabetes is 6 months or older, you can now get them vaccinated against COVID-19! For what to expect, we checked in with pediatric endocrinologist and fellow person with diabetes Dr. Dan DeSalvo, who let us know that the COVID-19 vaccines should be safe and effective in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). “Getting the vaccine is not only key to personal health, but also a selfless act to achieve herd immunity and end the COVID-19 pandemic,” he added.
While important to remember that having type 1 diabetes itself does not seem to put anyone more at risk for contracting the novel coronavirus, diabetes care itself can be made far more complicated after contracting COVID-19 and protecting anyone with diabetes from getting the virus is our ultimate goal.
Additionally, as kids and teens head back to school or other in-person social activities, their risk of carrying COVID-19 with or without symptoms, then possibly spreading the virus to others who have not yet been able to get vaccinated, increases as well. Ensuring everyone who is eligible to get vaccinated does so keeps more people safe. That’s why we encourage everyone with diabetes to get vaccinated as soon as possible.
Are the COVID-19 vaccines safe for kids and teens with Type 1 diabetes?
In May 2021, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was granted an EUA (emergency use authorization) by the FDA and the CDC for people aged 12 through 15. In November 2021, it was also granted an EUA for ages five through 11.
These approvals followed vaccine trials that specifically focused on how the immune systems of youth ages 5 to 11 and 12 to 15 would handle the vaccine, with trials for those ages 6 months to 4 years underway.
Ages 5 to 11 receive a much smaller dose of the vaccine than those who are older—10mcg instead of the normal 30mcg. This dose was shown to provide a similar robust immune response for their age group. In each clinical trial, the vaccine was proven to be safe and effective, protecting all individuals from severe symptoms or outcomes of COVID-19, while having minimal and typical vaccine side effects.
Important to note is that children do not seem to be more likely to contract coronavirus or have severe outcomes from the COVID-19 disease. However, a very small number of children who did contract COVID-19 then ended up with a condition called Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C), a condition where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs. Ensuring your child does not contract COVID-19 is the best way to prevent the possibility of MIS-C.
Additionally, as we’ve seen throughout the pandemic, disparities are abundant. Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Natives and Hispanic children have experienced significantly higher rates of infection than their peers. Non-Hispanic Black children with T1D who contract COVID-19 are four times more likely to also experience diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
So while generally children are less likely to contract the coronavirus, it is important to remain vigilant and continue practicing measures to protect everyone—like wearing a mask and social distancing—to keep everyone safe until we’re all safe.
Finding A Vaccine Appointment
You can find a COVID-19 vaccine appointment near you at vaccines.gov. You can also text your ZIP code to 438829 or call 1-800-232-0233 to find locations near you. Each of these resources is endorsed by the CDC.
Every vaccine taken decreases the risk and prevents the spread of COVID-19. The more people who get vaccinated quickly the better, as it means better protection for everyone and a faster road toward “back to normal.”
Managing Vaccine Side Effects—They’re Normal!
Because of the mild symptoms experienced by some, it is important to stay vigilant about blood sugar levels for the first 24 to 48 hours after receiving the vaccine. These side effects are very typical to every vaccine and include fatigue, muscle aches, headaches and injection site soreness.
The symptoms may also impact blood sugar levels—sending them slightly high or slightly low—so check blood sugar levels frequently, stay hydrated and be familiar with your sick day routine. The mild symptoms your child may experience after the vaccine are significantly safer and more easily managed than potentially getting COVID-19 itself.
What About Kids Ages 4 and Under?
In June of 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted emergency use authorization of COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer (for children ages 6 months to 5 years) and Moderna (for children ages 6 months to 6 years). These vaccines were also recommended for use by the CDC.
In December of 2022, the FDA and CDC both approved a bivalent COVID-19 vaccine for children as young as 6 months.
What should I do if my child gets COVID-19 while waiting to be able to get the vaccine?
The CDC recommends that all children, including those who may have already had COVID-19 while waiting, should get vaccinated.
While most children who do contract COVID-19 do not experience severe symptoms or outcomes from the disease, it is important to remain vigilant and seek help if symptoms begin to get severe, blood sugar levels start to get unmanageable, or ketones are persistent. Remember that ketones can be in the system and DKA can happen even if blood sugar levels appear normal.
As shared by Dr. DeSalvo, “as with any intercurrent illness, vigilant sick day management is key to preventing DKA with COVID-19. This should include frequent ketone and blood glucose monitoring (ideally with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) if available), hydration and insulin delivery.
“DKA is most likely to occur if you stop taking insulin in the context of illness, so don’t stop taking your insulin—you may need to drink carb-containing fluids like Gatorade for blood glucose levels under 10.0 mmol/L180 mg/dL so that you can continue taking insulin. Hydration and insulin are key in clearing ketones. Know how to reach your diabetes care team and call them with any questions or concerns regarding sick day management. Review your sick day plan at your clinic visit so you can be prepared.”