What is DKA?
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication from diabetes that can be serious and life-threatening. DKA is often a common factor when first diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, but also can occur during management of the disease. When the body is not receiving enough insulin to break down glucose, it forces the body to start breaking down fat as fuel. Ketones are then released into the body.
Dangers of DKA
DKA can lead to coma, or even death if the level of ketones in the body are high enough.
Causes can include:
- Lack of insulin
- Consistent high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
- Lack of food in the system due to illness/nausea
- Overnight low blood sugars (hypoglycemia)
Symptoms & Warning signs of DKA:
- High levels of ketones in urine
- Very high blood glucose levels
- Frequent urination
- Extreme thirst
More extreme warning signs
- Constant fatigue
- Flushed skin
- Nausea or stomach pain
- Shortness of breath
- Fruity smell on the breath
How to test for ketones
Ketone strips (urinalysis) can be purchased at any pharmacy. Follow the directions given in the instructions insert, and match the result on the stick with the accompanying color chart.
When to test for ketones
- If you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above
- If you have a flu or any other kind of virus (recommended to test every 4 to 6 hours)
- If your blood glucose levels are consistently higher than 240 mg/dl (13 mmol/L)
When to see a doctor
If urinalysis test shows high levels of ketones, or if you experience any extreme symptoms, contact a doctor immediately.
How to prevent DKA
DKA is prominent when you are ill, due to factors such as stress hormones and dehydration. To avoid going into DKA be sure to take precautions such as:
- Drinking lots of water
- Take the appropriate doses of insulin as instructed by your doctor
- Eat what you can
- Test blood sugar often
- Test for ketones